Friday, February 7, 2020
Integrity from Kings and Carters views - Essay Example The Letter from Birmingham Jail written by Martin Luther King Jr. appears to be the very fabric of Stephen CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s three steps to integrity articulated in the book Integrity. Of course, this does not imply that Carter mainly uses King as his guiding principle in formulating his definition of integrity; probably King is one of the many people with genuine integrity that Carter viewed in order for him to establish the three steps to integrity. It is uncertain, nevertheless, if King would agree to CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s three steps, particularly the third step. There are problems inherent in CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"saying openly.Ã¢â¬ King would generally view or interpret CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s integrity based largely from his own life and belief system. Reading KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Letter from Birmingham Jail, the three steps of integrity expounded by Carter appear to be in harmony with KingÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, actions, and expressions. Of the three categories of integrity, KingÃ¢â¬â¢s integrity through his letter is justified as articulated in CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s third step: Ã¢â¬Å"saying openly that you are acting on your understanding of right from wrongÃ¢â¬ (Carter 7). Carter admits that the third step is the most difficult part of attaining integrity or an integral life. He argues that the present-day American individual will do everything merely for the sake of social acceptance. Conversely, CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s integrity requires a person to say openly on the reason for his or her action, even at the expense of personal interest. This is what King did; he expresses openly to a group of people -- namely, the religious clergymen -- about the reason for his action (i.e., peaceable assembly). ... it deeply before he -- together with his brothers and sisters who are black Americans like himself -- went to the streets in expressing his sentiments concerning the prevalence of racism in the country. By and large, King would view or interpret CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of integrity based from his contemplative, active, and writing life. In CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s view, on the other hand, KingÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, actions, and sayings fit well to his integrity paradigm. In the first step to integrity, Carter explains that an integral life requires the personÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"discerning what is right and what is wrongÃ¢â¬ (7). To discern or think about what is good and what is not is a prerequisite for an integral life. With respect to the first step outlined by Carter, King is a contemplative person. He contemplates on the things or ideas that are relevant to his life as a person in general and as an African American in particular. In his letter, it is apparent that King has made several t hinking concerning the existence of racism characterized in segregation. He has cited many and varied experiences, all of them are ugly, of the black community within the white-dominated society. For one thing, King mentions about the signboards and other displays in the grocery stores that contain an anti-black message. The most touching of the numerous examples presented in the letter is when an African American child asks his father why Ã¢â¬Å"white people treat colored people so meanÃ¢â¬ (King). King has discerned deeply and even philosophically before he takes his action to the streets. In the second step to integrity, Carter states that a person with integrity has to act based from what he or she has discerned, even at Ã¢â¬Å"personal costÃ¢â¬ (7). From KingÃ¢â¬â¢s letter alone, Carter would say that this man is a man of
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Cellular Processes Essay When molecules move from a high to low concentration it is called moving DOWN the concentration gradient. Ã¢â¬ ¨When molecules move from a low to high concentration it is called moving AGAINST the concentration gradient. Ã¢â¬ ¨When the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a system, the system is at EQUILIBRIUM.Ã¢â¬ ¨What kind of transport DOES NOT require energy? PASSIVEWhat kind of transport requires energy? ACTIVEÃ¢â¬ ¨Which CELL PART provides the energy for active transport? MITOCHONDRIAÃ¢â¬ ¨Which MOLECULE is produced by mitochondria and provides energy for transport? ATP Ã¢â¬ ¨Movement of molecules FROM a region of HIGH concentration TO a region of LOW concentration = DIFFUSION Ã¢â¬ ¨The movement of molecules FROM a region of HIGH concentration TO a region of LOW concentration with the HELP of carrier proteins or channels = FACILITATED DIFFUSION Membrane proteins that move molecules across membranes by attaching, changing shape, and flipping to the other side like a revolving door = CARRIER PROTEINS Membrane proteins that help molecules across membranes by providing a tunnel = PROTEIN CHANNELSÃ¢â¬ ¨The movement of WATER molecules from HIGH concentration to LOW concentration across a cell membrane = OSMOSIS Stage 3 Stages 1 2Which kinds of transport use VESICLES to help molecules across membranes? ENDOCYTOSIS (PHAGOCYTOSIS PINOCYTOSIS EXOCYTOSIS Photosynthesis Chemical Reaction for photosynthesis: Water + Carbon dioxide Ã Glucose + Oxygen 6H2O + 6CO2 Ã¯Æ' C6H12O6 + 6O2 Process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches Chloroplast- site of photosynthesis Cellular Respiration- process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen; Aerobic means with oxygen (O2); Anaerobic means without oxygen (O2) -Glycolysis- Means the splitting of glucose; Occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells in every organism; It does NOT require oxygen; A net of 2 ATP is made during glycolysis. -Fermentation Ã¢â¬â Anaerobic Pathway-There are 2 types of fermentation: Alcoholic Fermentation-Occurs in yeasts and bacteria, CO2 and ethyl alcohol are produced (bread dough rising); Lactic Acid Fermentation-Occurs during strenuous exercise (burning fatigue in muscles) -Cellular Respiration Totals: Energy produced per glucose molecule; -Glycolysis = Net of 2 ATP; KrebÃ¢â¬â¢s Cycle = 2 ATP; Electron Transport Chain (ETC) = 32 ATP; Total = 36 ATP per glucose molecule Mitochondria Ã¢â¬Å"powerhouseÃ¢â¬ - site of cellular respiration= MAKING ENERGY! Manages the process by which energy stored in food molecules is transformed into usable energy for the cell. Other cell organelles: Vacuole- stores water, waster, enzymes and other materials (like a water tower) Golgi body- sorts and packages proteins (think of UPS) Nucleus- brain/control center of the cell; instructions for making proteins Lysosome- digests worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed bacteria viruses (like a janitor/clean up crew) Ribosome- site of protein synthesis (think of meat-has protein in it) Cell membrane- controls what enter and leaves the cell, Ã¢â¬Å"semi or selectively permeableÃ¢â¬ (like a bouncer) Mitosis: produces 2 genetically identical, diploid body (somatic) cellsDiploid: full set of chromosomes Meiosis: produces 4 genetically different, haploid sex (gametes) cellsHaploid: chromosome # is half Practice Questions: Cell organelles carry out specific metabolic processes. 1. Study the statement above. Which cell organelle manages the process by which proteins are sorted and packaged to be sent where they are needed? a. ribosomesb. lysosomesc. Golgi bodiesd. vacuoles 2. Study the statement above. Which cell organelle is responsible for storingÃ enzymes and other materials needed by the cell? a. ribosomesb. vacuolesc. mitochondriad. lysosomes 3. Study the statement above. Which cell organelle manages the process by which proteins are assembled based on DNA instructions? a. mitochondriab. lysosomesc. ribosomesd. vacuoles 4. Study the statement above. Which cell organelle manages the process by which energy stored in food molecules is transformed into usable energy for the cell? a. lysosomesb. golgi bodiesc. mitochondriad. ribosomes 5. Study the statement above. Which cell organelle manages the process by which worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria are digested? a. ribosomesb. lysosomesc. vacuolesd. golgi bodies 6. Which of these is not an advantage gained by organisms which reproduce sexually? a. Genetic recombination created genetic diversity within a species. b. Some percentage of organisms within a species will be likely to survive and reproduce despite harsh environmental conditions. c. Genetic diversity reduces the risk of species extinction caused by hard environmental conditions. d. Genetic diversity weakens a speciesÃ¢â¬â¢ overall ability to survive harsh environmental conditions. 7. A fertilized egg created through sexual reproduction- a. has a combination of genetic material that is unique in the species b. is genetically identical to other eggs of the same parents c. is genetically identical to the parents d. contains genetic material from only one parent 8. Organisms reproduce asexually in a variety of ways. A bacterium reproduces by making a copy of its chromosome, growing larger, then dividing into two separate, genetically identical cells. This process is called- a. regenerationb. binary fissionc. vegetative reproductiond. budding 9. Which of the following statements about sexual reproduction is false? a. Organisms that reproduce sexually produce sex cells called gametes. b. Fertilization is part of the sexual reproduction process. c. In sexual reproduction, a single parent produces identical offspring. d. A zygote is produced through sexual reproduction. 10. Study the chemical reactions below. Photosynthesis: Cellular respiration: Plants produce more oxygen during photosynthesis than they use in cellular respiration. What happens to the excess oxygen produced during photosynthesis? a. It is used as an energy source by plant cells. b. It is released into the air and is used by other organisms for respiration. c. It is converted into heat energy. d. It is a waste product which is never reused. 11. Which of these is inhaled by animals, then used in respiration? a. carbonb. oxygenc. nitrogend. water 12. One of the products of photosynthesis is glucose (C6H12O6). Which of the following statements about the production and use of this molecule is false? a. Plants use the energy from glucose to convert nutrients to body tissues and grow larger. b. Glucose that is not immediately used by the plant is stored for later use. c. Plants use the energy from glucose to manufacture a variety of plant products. d. Glucose that is not immediately used by the plant is lost as waste material. 13. Tigers, goldfish, peacocks, and humans all reproduce sexually. Which statement is true about sexual reproduction? a. It is not a factor scientists use to define different species. b. It involves the joining of an egg and sperm into one cell. c. The offspring are genetically the same as their parents. d. Sexual reproduction can only take place by internal fertilization. 14. Jackson is growing a bean plant in a pot. One day Jackson notices that the plant is wilting. He waters the bean plant and within a few minutes the plant begins to perk up. This is because the plant has taken up water by osmosis. At what structural level does osmosis occur? a. organs b. tissues c. cells d. organ systems Organisms as different as bacteria, mushrooms, algae, oak trees, and human beings are all made of cells. 15. Read the information above. Which statement is true for all cells? a. All cells have the same shape. b. All cells need energy to survive. c. All cells are surrounded by a rigid wall. d. All cells belong to organ systems. Michelle is looking through a microscope at a cell from an onion root. She sees a cell that is in the process of dividing to make a new cell. This is what Michelle sees: 16. Study the diagram and the description above. If Michelle were able to find an onion cell that had completed division, what products of cell division would she see? a. four different cellsb. only one cellc. two identical cellsd. four identical cells 17. Study the diagram and the statement above. Michelle is observing cell division in an onion cell, but this type of cell division also occurs in the human body. Which statement is not true about this type of cell division in humans? a. This type of cell division is humans produces sex cells as well as body cells. b. This type of cell division in humans occurs while bones are forming during development. c. This type of cell division in humans can be affected by viruses. d. This type of cell division in humans is necessary to heal cuts and wounds 18. Study the diagram and the description above. What is the name for the process Michelle is observing? a. mutationb. meiosisc. mitosisd. metamorphosis 19. Study the diagram and the information above. Which of these statements about cell division is true? a. A newly formed daughter cell has less DNA than its parent cell. b. Cells divide at random times. c. New cells formed by cell division can replace dying cells in an organism. d. The phases of cell division can occur in any order. 20. A special type of cell division, called meiosis, is used to form sex cells or gametes. Which statement is true above this type of cell division? a. The products of meiosis are two identical cells. b. DNA is not copied at all during meiosis. c. The new cells have half the DNA of the parent cell. d. Meiosis is complete after only one round of cell division. 21. A person with swollen gums rinses his mouth with warm salt water, and the swelling decreases. Which has occurred? a. The swollen gums have absorbed the saltwater solution. b. The saltwater solution lowers the temperature of the water in the gums. c. The salt in the solution has moved against the concentration gradient. d. The water in the gums has moved from a high to a low concentration of water. 22. What advantage do sexually reproducing organisms have over asexually reproducing organisms? a. genetic variationb. genetic stabilityc. increased fertilization rated. increased reproductive rate 23. What is the most likely function of a group of cells that contain a high number of chloroplasts? a. respirationb. transpirationc. fermentationd. photosynthesis 24. In humans, glucose is kept in balance in the bloodstream by insulin. Which concept does this best illustrate? a. adaptationb. homeostasisc. metabolismd. organization 25. In which way are photosynthesis and cellular respiration different? a. Cellular respiration stores ATP, while photosynthesis releases ATP. b. Cellular respiration produces oxygen, while photosynthesis uses oxygen. c. Photosynthesis releases energy, while cellular respiration stores energy. d. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide, while cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide. 26. Which statement best distinguishes aerobic from anaerobic respiration? a. Only aerobic respiration involves fermentation. b. Only anaerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria. c. Only aerobic respiration requires oxygen. d. Only anaerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide. 27. Which most accurately describes the difference in ATP production between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration? a. Aerobic respiration produces more ATP than anaerobic respiration. b. Anaerobic respiration produces more ATP than aerobic respiration. c. Only anaerobic respiration produces measurable amounts of ATP. d. Anaerobic and aerobic respiration produce the same amount of ATP. 28. A human skin cell contains 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are present in a human sperm cell? a. 23b. 46c. 92d. 138 29. What is homeostasis? a. the ability of an organism to maintain a relatively stable internal environment b. the production of a hormone by an endocrine gland that works on another endocrine gland c. a series of events that monitor how hormones work in the body d. a process in which a change in the environment causes a response that returns conditions to their original status 30. If the body stopped producing new Beta cells, what would the expected outcome be? The pancreas would no longer release glucagon High blood glucose levels would continue to become normal Insulin would no longer be released Alpha cells would become beta cells 31. You just ran a marathon (26.2 miles) and your body is trying to reach homeostasis. Which of the following statements is true? Your blood vessels will constrict to conserve heat Your blood vessels will dilate to release body heat Your bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s control center will shut down Your brain will tell your body not to sweat
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"To Be or Not To BeÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Ã¢â¬Å"To Be or Not To BeÃ¢â¬ speech in the play, Ã¢â¬Å"Hamlet,Ã¢â¬ portrays Hamlet as a very confused man. He is very unsure of himself and often wavers between two extremes. In the monologue, he contemplates death; over whether he should commit suicide or seek revenge for his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. The play also shows how Hamlet thinks over things too much. From the analysis over life and death he comes to the conclusion that he would rather live and seek revenge for fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death than die. So he follows out his plans and kills Claudius after much person debate as he had done in his soliloquy. Evidence of his unsureness, fickleness, and thinking too much is not only shown in this speech, but throughout the entire play. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the soliloquy, Hamlet considers suicide. His character is clearly shown in this speech. The speech itself shows that he thinks too much. He is wavering between the two extremes: life and death. Ã¢â¬Å"Whether Ã¢â¬Ëtis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end themÃ¢â¬ (3, 1, 56-60). He wonders whether he should live and suffer or die and end the suffering. He believes that life is synonymous with suffering. The Ã¢â¬Å"whips and scorn of time, ThÃ¢â¬â¢oppressorÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong, the proud manÃ¢â¬â¢s contumely, The pangs of disprized love, the lawÃ¢â¬â¢s delay, The insolence of office, and the spurns That patient merit of thÃ¢â¬â¢unworthy takes...
Monday, January 13, 2020
Have you ever wonder why there are divisions and schisms around us that eventually lead to riots and wars? How can these things happen? These dilemmas happen because of conflict within the body or group of people. Sometimes conflict arises because of the superior and inferior mentality of some people. We can even notice and observe nowadays how our society is drastically changing. Our beliefs, cultures, values and morals have been changed through times. People are becoming liberal on things and somewhat approves the things that we know deep within us are wrong. They have the tendency to do things which only Ã¢â¬Å"benefitÃ¢â¬ them that can cause schisms and conflicts within their work, co-workers and even in their own family. They sometimes become insensitive and disregarded the right values and morals that were inculcated by their parents when they were still young in order to satisfy their selfish desires; thus, they sacrifice the welfare of their family and friends in order to meet their own desires. If an employee has conflicts with his boss, there is a tendency that he will not follow on his bossÃ¢â¬â¢ instructions that might be the ground of his termination. If a conflict happens within his co-workers, he might gossip about his co-workers whereabouts. But if there is conflict within the family, members within have always tension. Conflicts can bring disunity. Disunity can bring chaos and chaos can bring divisions. In the workplace, conflicts among the employees are not new. One scenario that can create conflict within the workplace is when somebody is promoted to a greater position and when you know that you are ahead of that person. Jealousy starts to creep in your heart and you feel inferior. This might lead to bitterness. On the other hand, conflicts within the family is one of the most dreadful things may happen to a person. Family can be disunited if conflict arises. Moreover, to a social psychologist, a conflict is a seemingly incompatibility of actions, goals, of ideas. The elements of conflict are much the same at all levels, from nations in an arms race to cultural disputes within a society to individuals in marital strife. In each situation, people become enmeshed in a destructive social process that produces results no one wants. Among these destructive processes are social traps and distorted perceptions (Dawes, 2000). Reference: 1. Dawes, R. M. (2000). Social Dilemmas. Annual Review of Psychology, 31 169-193.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Roma omnia vincit: by 44BC. Rome had conquered a vast array of land from Gaul to Numidia to Syria. Although not completely joined up for instances most of Anatolia was not under the Roman State. The question was a topic of much debate in the 1980s, after Harris published his Ã¢â¬ËWar and Imperialism in Republican RomeÃ¢â¬â¢. Promoting a view that Roman expansion was aggressive, while the main thought was that Rome had gained provinces via defensive measures; Sherwin-White rebuffed HarrisÃ¢â¬â¢ claims but partly for them being too extreme in thought. The debate resulted in three points of view: economic imperialism: an aggressive policy that believes Rome is intentionally seeking to dominate other states. Defensive imperialism: unintentional empire, a result from major wars such as the Macedonian war and the Punic wars. Rome entered the wars either to help allies or protect herself. This was part of BadianÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis against the Marxist polemic. The essay will incorporate the theories but will weigh up if Rome was aggressive or defensive in approach to acquiring an empire. The sources that will be used are Harris and White predominantly as the two are of opposing views. Ancient evidence will mostly come from literary sources such as Polybius, Sallust and Livy to name three and bearing in mind biases that they may have. For instance, Polybius was a Greek and a hostage so at times there may be an anti-Roman feel to his prose. The essay will indicate that the evidence and practises ofShow MoreRelatedThe Battle Of The Roman Republic1741 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesanticipated its level of military engagement nor the number of conflicts it would find itself in over the next two hundred years. A series of wars allowed the Roman Republic to consolidate power on the Italian peninsula, emerge as a major force in the Mediterranean area, and lay the groundwork for what eventually would become the Empire. 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Also, during the second punic war the roman army were forced to recruit a larger army after the defeat of 40 000 men in Carthage (93). Other factors or policies that help the romans in the conquest were the treatment of theRead MoreHannibal vs. Rome778 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDuring the Second Punic War, Hannibal, was a terror to the Roman Republic. Remembered even today for his campaign, the hatred Hannibal felt for Rome was clearly seen on the battlefield. He plowed his way throughout modern day France and Italy, crushing his opponents (sometimes quite literally) under his army. However, Hannibal was not only a general of great strength, but also an exceptional strategist, and a charismatic leader. These qualities along with his appointed positionRead MoreThe Three Major Empires Essay examples1016 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLatin city-states encircled by these alliances felt threatened and opposed Roman expansion, but in 338 B.C.E they were conquered by the Romans in the Ã¢â¬Å"Latin wars.Ã¢â¬ In 340 B.C.E Campania attempted to annul their affiliation to Rome they were subdued by Roman forces. In less than a century the Romans dominated the northern part of the Italian Peninsula by conquering the Etuscans, Samnites, Gauls, and Umbrians. The Romans then turned to the south and faced Pyrrus of Epirus. He won a few early,Read MoreThe Period Of The Punic Wars918 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhile the governments of Rome and Carthage around the times of the Punic wars might look similar as drawn in organisational chart fashion, reflecting structural similarities, there were important differences in the allocation of responsibilities, concepts of citizenship and the scope and exercise of power. I will firstly provide a brief history of governance in the two societies and then depict the structural similarities before highlighting important differences. Brief history of governance RomeÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Battle Between Carthage And Rome1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe three Punic Wars was a series of battles fought between Carthage and Rome that lasted almost a century from 264 BC to 149 BC. As Carthage had the leading power of Western Mediterranean and RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s control over the peninsula of Italy. However, both of the two states had different intensions over the island of Sicily leading to the battles of the Punic Wars that soon later ended in a total defeat for Carthage. With the desire of controlling the island of Sicily, Carthage would still have the dominance
Friday, December 27, 2019
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2630 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? 1 Introduction: Downsizing an organization in terms of workforce for making savings is related to a lot of adverse effect. Redundancy situation creates panic among remaining employees as they dont feel secure. This situation damages the morale, motivation and loyalty of residual workforce which hampers the efficiency of workforce. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Strategic Choices For People And Organization Business Essay" essay for you Create order Here in this report we will discuss effective ways of avoiding such situation and also the ways to align workforce for the prosperity of the organization at the same time report also emphasizes on making efficient savings for the organization. 1.1 Background: Dealing in a scenario wherein the organization is undergoing budgetary constraints is very difficult; the most difficult aspect of this situation is to keep employees motivated so that the organization can come out of this situation. It is very important for the organization to keep workforce motivated as human capital is an asset which if motivated can make organization sail through any difficult situation. At the same time it is also important to make optimum use of the workforce and effective vacancy management to make efficiency saving for an organization which is undergoing down rise. 1.2 Redundancy is the last step any organization would like to take as human resource is the largest asset of any organization. People make the organization grow and flourish, in my opinion effectively managing vacancies and precise workforce planning are better way out to avoid redundancy situation. These two measures not only help in avoiding redundancy situation but they are the best tools to make savings. 1.3 Vacancy Management: Effective Vacancy Management is very important for an organization to gain efficiency and make savings. Vacancy once created is required to be filled, but the more important thing is to analyze the value addition that position is doing for the growth of the organization. If at all the said vacancy is not a key position in the organization and is not making any difference in the efficiency of a team or the department it is, its better to hold the vacancy or discontinue it. On the other hand if it is very important and is adversely affecting the workflow than in that case the first step should be redeployment of staff from some other department or position which is considered to be eff iciency saving. Redeployment will help creating more trained employees and will also help in breaking monotony of the employees who are doing similar job since a very long time, hence a proper redeployment would create employee satisfaction and make savings for the organization. Second option is secondment, a temporary transfer to another job or post within the same organization is termed as secondment, if organization need to hold the vacancy for long due to budgetary constraints and savings targets this measure adds a lot of value to increase efficiency and make savings. Secondment is also a very good tool to increase inter organizational cohesiveness. These all measures create a lot of opportunistic savings for the organization and also help in retaining the most valuable assets of an organization The Human Resource by keeping the redundancy situation in a distance. 1.4 Workforce Planning: In an organization workforce planning is a key to identify what types of skills are need ed to get the job done. Workforce planning is an essential ingredient of human capital management, as said by Ann Cotton in her book seven steps of effective workforce planning(pg 13) it is about alignment of organizations human capital-its employees-to its business plan. In other words, it ensures that the organization has will to have the right people with the right skills in the right job at the right time performing their assignments efficiently and effectively for a common goal and the goal is success of the organization. To sustain a long term success an organization requires adequately planned workforce with the collective set of knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies. The challenges faced in an organization today are: Competition among the remaining employees is growing. Increased diversification of the workforce both ethnically and generationally Great difference in personal and professional expectations of employees due to generation gap. Because of the above mentioned challenges of todays scenario workforce planning has been a very important tool for an organization to achieve its goals successfully. Todays workforce planning is much wider than the 3Rs of recruitment, retention and retirement. Workforce planning comprises of a lot of other things like adequately training the employees for increasing their efficiency or flexing them from work, job rotation and timely transfers, redeployment etc. A proper career succession plan for the employees is also very important and is an integral part of workforce planning. Retirement at an age is inevitable with the help of a proper career succession plan for the employees we can always create alternative arrangement in the organization for the retiring experienced staff. Workforce planning as defined by Ann Cotten in her book Seven Steps of effective workforce planning pg 13, has mentioned that workforce planning also share the below mentioned elements: Alignment with the strategic go als of the organization Identification of the human capital needed to achieve the goals Alignment of human capital as needed to ensure success The creation, implementation, and evaluation of strategies to ensure the right mix of human capital is currently and will continue to be available when and where needed. 2. Recession and other adverse factors have made organizations very cautious in their workforce management strategies. Downsizing the organizations in terms of workforce is a common practice to make savings for the organization. Now the question is downsizing or implementing compulsory redundancy is a righteous way of making savings for the organization, though I agree and recommend opportunistic savings but not by downsizing the organizations workforce. Effectively managing current and future vacancies and effective planning of placing people in right job at the right time collectively termed as efficient workforce management are better ways. By implementing righ t strategies at a time when there is an acute need of making savings for the organization will always help organization to come out of any situation which is adversely affecting the success. 2.1 Vacancy Management: Redeployment: It is movement of staff by the employer from one position or location to another. Effective redeployment always adds to gain efficiency and make savings for the organization. Effectively moving staff always help in breaking the monotony of employees and makes them more efficient. While redeploying employees employers should keep in mind: Alternative job offer should have the same status. It should be within the employees capability. Should not cause unreasonable additional inconvenience. Alternative job offer should provide similar earnings. Secondment: Temporary transfer of a staff from one department/location to another. This measure is very effective in preparing alternative staff or secondees for different important positions in an organization. This measure also helps in developing inter organizational cohesiveness that results in smoother functioning of the organization. 2.2 Workforce Planning: Organization must have robust human capital strate gies to meet current and future business needs. These strategies typically focus on talent management, succession planning, leadership, knowledge management, performance management, and accountability. Planned Retirements Staff Assessment Exercise: In order to plan long term strategies it is very important to have a knowledge of retiring staff members. Not only the normal course of retirement but we should also take an opinion of the staff on their retirement plans. Career Succession Planning: Now as we have data of retiring employees by the above two exercises we now need to implement succession strategies. Succession planning programs are key to ensure that a strong data of potential successors will be available to replace retiring employees. Common activities included in succession planning programs are job shadowing, job rotations, mentoring, and formal professional development. As said by Amy R Herd and Tracy Buschbom (26th feb 2010) Essential elements in succession plann ing are an understanding of both the competencies needed to fill positions and the current competency levels of employees(Volume 15 Issue 1, Pages 96 110) 2.3 Effective workforce planning and vacancy management complement each other as they go hand in hand. Laying out long term plans for an organization is not at all possible without effectively managing human capital. Reference to Ann Cotten in her book Seven Steps of Effective Workforce Planning(2007 edition, Pg 19) Workforce Planning and Effective Vacancy Management closes the below mentioned gaps in an organization: Retaining good employees with needed skills. Recruiting good employees with needed skills. Developing employees. Retaining organizational knowledge and building employee skills. Reducing overstaffing. 2.4 The measures discussed above will bring in change in the organizational structure, organizational culture and also in the leadership. These changes may rope in inter organizational conflicts. C hanges are not an unusual phenomenon in the history of mankind, but this time the change would be well managed (Thomas Diefenbach, August 2006), the idea of change brings in a lot of confusion and a feeling of insecurity in the mind of employees. The only thing that the employees resist is the idea of change itself. The working structure now is more prone to changes one of the most important factor is the technology, the more effective ways of communication such as email and internet had resulted in a more flatter and less hierarchical organizational structure with fewer levels and more responsibilities (Managerial Skills: what has changed since late 1980s, Pg 169, July 2007). Reference to Ann Cotten (Seven Steps of effective Workforce Planning pg 21, 2007 edition) Communication is another critical component to minimize the negative effects of change. Leaders and workforce planning team members must communicate with managers and employees about the goals, scope, and timeframe of the workforce planning effort. Once strategies are ready for implementation, they must be communicated broadly as well. Managers and supervisors need to understand their roles and responsibilities in workforce planning, and employees need to understand their rights. If planned effectively the measures like secondment and redeployment increase inter organizational cohesiveness. Reference to Dr. Sanghamitra (Module 6-Approaches to Change Management, pg-3) effective change management is a eight step process: Initiation (communication of need to change to people), Motivation (motivating people to change by involving them in the process of change), Diagnosis (analyzing and finding out the main cause of change) Information Collection (collecting information after diagnosis to figure out the change alternatives) Deliberation (carefully evaluating alternatives) Action Proposal (finding out the best alternative by inviting opinion from people) Implementation (Implementin g the best alternative) Stabilization (getting the people adapted to the change by making them understand that this is the part of organizations life and the best alternative for growth) Further as per Dr. Sanghamitra (Module 6-Approaches to Change Management, pg-8) the hrm techniques to align employees with the change is very well described in tabular format as mentioned below. Task-focused changes Role-focused changes System-focused changes ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Employee education and training ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Role clarification ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Individual-role compatibility ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Salary and incentives ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Employee appraisal and career path ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Behavior modification ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Team building ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Employee empowerment ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Management by Objectives This table clearly states that for effectively managing change it is very important to have clarity of beliefs and action, to build a followership of mutual trust and commitment and unanimously sharing the new culture and statement throughout the organization. 3. In any case change is inevitable but the important aspect is how well its managed and what positive results it can bring for the organization. After careful evaluation and study of the facts from different literatures I believe that Job rotation (redeployment and secondment) and workforce planning (planned retirements-staff assessment exercise and career succession planning) are the best options to be chosen to gain efficiency and make savings for the organization. 3.1 Job Rotation makes an integral part of vacancy management. Reference to Ricardo Semler(Maverick, pg 5) job rotation of any respect secondment or redeployment is a win-win situation for both employees and employers. Benefits to Employees: Job rotation makes life more interesting for employees as they learn new skills. Job rotation increases value of an employee as they become multi skilled. People get a broader view of the company through job rotation, which in return helps them understand the vision in a better way. Job rotation helps people to break monotony of doing similar job over a long period of time. Benefits to Employers: Job rotation discourages empire building, as before people start building an empire they are asked to pack their bags and move to a different department/location. It enables organization to prepare more than one option for a job. Job rotation helps depersonalization of the organization and as a result the organization gets to know by its name not by an individual. Job rotation helps building inter-organizational cohesiveness. As people in the organization become multi skilled by job rotation it decreases the trauma of a key employee leaving the organization as he/she can be easily replaced. This success of this vision is clearly demonstrated in Semco where these changes were incorporated by the CEO Mr. Ricardo Semler. 3.2 While planning the workforce requirement it is very important to know the retirement plans of the employees, as only after the knowledge of the departing staff a career succession plan can be projected and implemented. Reference to the Jenny McCa rthy (Planning a future workforce: An Australian Perspective, year 2005) it reveals an excellent example of remodeling the workforce by incorporating the above discussed strategies. The report reveals that when it was found out that the maximum numbers of librarians in Australia were at a retiring age a strategic career succession plan was devised for the aspiring next generation librarians. Though the mentoring was done by the retiring librarians but this new generation came in with revolutionary changes by redeveloping and reinventing the traditional ways with an effective use of new technology. Some of the changes are listed below: Identification and management of information beyond traditional published information, including, for example, learning objects and data sets. Development of access systems to facilitate searching across multiple sources and systems. Leading and managing new directions in scholarly communication (for example, open access publishing and self-ar chiving, institutional repositories, institutional academic knowledge management). Creation of new knowledge products (for example, subject portals and subject specific websites to support learning and teaching). Development of physical and virtual spaces and services to support new pedagogies, including greater partnerships with academic and specialist support staff. 3.3 One more important aspect of workforce planning is to have a database of skill sets of employees with an assessment of the fact that what other skills can be developed in them for the success of the organization. This skill inventory of employees not only project the availability of needed skills in the future but also serve as a great asset to determine the availability of manpower for the short term projects of the organization as or when required.(Ann Cotten seven steps of effective workforce planning pg 15). 3.4 Though I recommend vacancy management but opportunistic savings and Internal adverts are of lesser value, as we already are making savings for the organization by proper administration of workforce movement. In the light of the measure of employee rotation I believe that need to make opportunistic savings will never arise as we will always have secondees to rope in as on when a vacancy arises. These plans also complement career succession planning as a vacancy can always be filled by a successor if we have identified it as it is depicted in the example of the Australian libraries as mentioned above. 3.5 Conclusion: Change is an inevitable process and is not an alien word for humans. But when this change happens in the organizations its the management of change that makes a difference. A change that was incorporated by Ricardo Semler in his company Semco can be taken as example of a well managed change. Though it is a long story of 25 years but the change was managed and incorporated in a very well managed way. It is only planned execution of strategy that makes a di fference.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
British America was mired with economic and religious conflicts starting from the Age of Exploration up to the colonial times. The corruption of the Anglican Church created a rift between the Protestants of England, Puritans and the extreme Separatists. The Protestant Reformation and Henry VIIIÃ¢â¬â¢s divorce with the Catholic Church gave rise to even more chaos. As a result, religious sects such as the Quakers and the Puritans were granted charters to escape the restrictions in England. Competition between Great Britain, Spain and the Dutch spurred the English Monarchs to seek for opportunities overseas. England was eager to catch up and expand westward as it saw potential in the New World after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. YetÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The forests provided excellent natural resources such as timber and animal fur that attracted settlers and investors alike. 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